## Glossary

Aerodynamics
The study of the motion of gas on objects and the forces created.

Aesthetics
A quality dealing with the appearance of an object.

Airflow
The movement of air around the chassis of the race car.

Bearings
mechanical device for lessening the friction or a machine part in which another part turns
or slides

Bernoulli Effect
states that the pressure of a fluid (liquid or gas), decreases as the fluid (liquid or gas),
flows faster.

Brainstorming
A stage used in the design and problem-solving process to generate a number and
variety of ideas in a noncritical atmosphere.

C.A.D.
Computer-Aided Design (and Drafting): a precision-drawing software program that
speeds up the design process by making it easier to create and modify draft designs.

C.A.M.
Computer-aided manufacturing; the operation of a machine controlled by a host
computer.

Chassis
Refers to all mechanical parts of the car attached to the structural frame.

Christmas Tree
The Tree, as it often is called, is the noticeable electronic starting device between lanes
on the starting line. It displays a calibrated-light countdown for each driver.

Circle Template
A piece of thin plastic with different sized holes punched in it that establishes or serves as
a pattern for tracing accurate circles

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
Equations that are known are programmed into computers. The computers provide
solutions to the problem of external airflow over vehicle shapes.

Design brief
A concise problem statement developed by a student or teacher that identifies what the
student will do and what the successful solution will achieve.

Design portfolio
A record of the development of a project from inception to completion.

Design principles
Qualities of balance, layout, measurement, colour, scale, and projection.

Design process
A planning and decision-making process that produces a solution.

Downforce
A vertical force directed downward, produced by airflow around an object. Downforce is
generated from the front and rear wings and the venturi tunnels on a ground effect car.

Drag
Force acting on an object in motion through a fluid (in this case air) in an opposite
direction to the objects (chassis) motion, produced by friction.

Elapsed Time
An elapsed time, or e.t., is the time it takes a vehicle to travel from the starting line to the
finish line.

Eliminations
After qualifying, vehicles race two at a time, resulting in one winner and one loser.
Winners continue to race in tournament-style competition until one remains.

French Curve
A curved piece of flat often plastic material used as a guide in drawing curves

Graphic
Any illustrative element in a page layout, such as a photograph, illustration, icon, ruled
line, or any other non-text element.

Hydraulics
Using fluids to transmit and regulate the forces in a machine or device.

Input
Data, materials, resources, or instructions entered into (most often) a computer system.

Laminar
Laminar flow means the fluid is moving in smooth layers around the object. Air flow
becomes turbulent moving from the front to the rear of the car, forced around obstructions
such as mirrors, helmets, and rollbars.

Lift
The upward reaction of an aircraft to the flow of air air forced over the shape of the wing
(airfoil). The front and rear wings of ground effect cars are shaped like inverted wings to
create downforce or negative lift.

Logo
A company emblem

Monocoque
A Body structure that derives its strength and rigidity from unitized construction, rather
than a framework of thick members.

Output
The actual results of a system, desired or undesired, expected or unexpected.

Parameters
Restrictions affecting the design of a product or system (e.g., size, cost, materials).

Pneumatics
Using air or gas pressure to operate mechanical devices.

Pre-staged
When a driver is approximately seven inches behind the starting line and the small yellow
light atop his of her side of the Christmas Tree is glowing.

Production
The process of converting and combining resources to construct,manufacture, or grow
something.

Prototype
A model used to test and evaluate a design before final production.

rpm
Revolutions per minute, or rpm, is a measure of engine speed as determined by crankshaft spin.

Scale
The relative size of a plan, drawing, or model.

Sensor
A subsystem used to obtain information or data (e.g., light, temperature, number,
movement).

Specifications
a detailed description of design criteria for a piece of work

A person or an organization that pays for or plans and carries out a project or activity
usually in return for advertising time during its course

Staged
A driver is staged when the front wheels of the car are right on the starting line and the
small yellow light below the prestaged light on his or her side of the Christmas Tree is
glowing. Once a driver is staged, the calibrated countdown (see Christmas Tree) may
begin at any time.

System
A regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole.

Technical drawings
Drawings that contain the detailed information required to produce an object or system
(e.g., measurement, scale, material, finishing information).

A formally registered symbol identifying the manufacturer or
distributor of a product

Turbulent
Turbulent airflow is when the fluid streamlines break into eddies and complex changing
patterns. This can cause unstable forces on an object. As the airflow moves from the front
of the car to the rear it becomes turbulent.

Venturi
A narrow tunnel under the side pod, shaped like an inverted wing. As air enters and is forced
through the narrow center, its speed increases, creating a low-pressure area between the
bottom of the car and the track. This creates a suction effect, which holds the car to the track.

Venturi Effect
Fluid speed increases when the fluid is forced through a narrow or restricted area. The
increased speed results in a reduction in pressure. The underbody venturi is shaped to
create a low pressure area between the road and chassis which creates downforce.

Wind Tunnel
A tube like structure where wind is produced usually by a large fan to flow over the test
object. The object is connected to instruments that measure and record aerodynamic
forces that act upon it.